The two causes of dry eye

Pediatric Eye Clinic

Two main causes

The two causes of dry eye are:

The deficit of aqueous secretion, which can be of two types:

Associated with a disease called Sjogren's Syndrome (affects the salivary and lacrimal glands, which are altered by an autoimmune process) or other autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus, among others.

Not associated with the previous pathologies. Then, it can be produced by a disease, congenital or acquired, that affects the secretion of the gland itself; also by obstruction of the ducts of the lacrimal gland; due to alterations in the nerves that regulate tear production in the glands (in the case of contact lens wear or diabetes, this seems to be the mechanism involved, as well as after some eye surgeries); or by the use of some drugs that decrease tear secretion (mainly antihistamines, beta blockers, antispasmodics, diuretics and some psychotropic drugs).

Excess water evaporation, also called evaporative dry eye, which can be:

Intrinsic: caused by the lack of production of fat for the fatty layer of the tear film or by disorders of the opening of the eyelids, by low frequency of blinking or by the action of some drugs.

Extrinsic: caused by vitamin A deficiency, use of topical drugs, preservatives in some eye drops, use of contact lenses or allergies that affect the ocular surface.


Source: cinfasalud

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